The integument consists of the skin (epidermis and dermis) and associated appendages (sweat glands, sebaceous glands, hairs, and nails). Considered the largest body organ, the integument comprises approximately 16% of total body weight. It is a highly specialized organ that functions to protect the body from injury, desiccation, and infection. It also participates in sensory reception, excretion, thermoregulation, and maintenance of water balance.
Epidermis is the outermost layer of the integument. It is a stratified squamous epithelial layer of ectodermal origin.
Layers of the epidermis from deep to superficial consist of four strata. Stratum basale (stratum germinativum) is a proliferative basal layer of columnar-like cells that contain the fibrous protein keratin. Stratum spinosum is a multilaminar layer of cuboidal-like cells that are bound together by means of numerous cytoplasmic extensions and des-mosomal junctions.
Stratum granulosum consists of flat polygonal cells filled with ba-sophilic keratohyalin granules. Viewed at the electron microscopic level, these cells also contain numerous mem brane-coating granules. Stratum corneum is the superficial stratum of dead cells and consists of several to many layers of flat, anucleated, and cornified (kerati-nized) cells. In the epidermis of the palms and soles, a thin, transitional zone of flat eosinophilic or pale-staining anucleated cells may occur as the stratum lucidum. This layer is found only in regions with a thick strata corneum.
Cells of the epidermis: keratinocytes are the most numerous and are responsible for the production of the family of keratin proteins that provide the barrier function of the epidermis.
Melanocytes are derivatives of neural crest ectoderm. They are found in the dermis and are also scattered among the keratinocytes in the basal layers of the epidermis. These dendritic cells produce the pigment melanin in the form melanosomes that are transferred to kerati-nocytes.
Langerhans cells are dendritic cells but are members of the immune system and function as antigen-presenting cells. They have also been found in other parts of the body, including the oral cavity and lymph nodes.
Merkel cells are found in the basal epidermis and appear function in concert with nerve fibers that are closely associated with them. At the electron microscopic level, their cytoplasm contains numerous membrane-bound granules that resemble those of catecholamine-pro-ducing cells.
epidermis – эпидермис
dermis – дерма
largest – самый большой
approximately – приблизительно
weight – вес
to protect – защищать
injury – рана
cytoplasmic – цитоплазматический
several – несколько
level – уровень
flat – плоский
palm – ладонь
thick – толстый
pigment – пигмент
melanin – меланин
nerve – нерв
closely – тесно
Запомните следующие словосочетания, в которых артикль не употребляется.
1) at – school;
2) at – home;
3) at – work.
Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.
1. I have two… sisters. My… sisters are… students.
2. We are at… home.
3. My… brother is not at… home, he is at. school.
4. My. mother is at… work. She is… doctor.
5. I am not… doctor.
6. I have no… sisters.
7. He is not… pilot.
8. I have thirty-two… teeth.
9. He has. child.
10. She has two… children. Her children are at… school.
11. Is your father at… home? – No, he is at… work.
12. Where is your… brother? – He is at… home.
Answer the questions.
1. What is epidermis?
2. What is the largest body organ?
3. How many per cents does the integument comprise of total body weight?
4. What is the main function of the integument?
5. Where it also participates in?
6. What is the outermost layer of the integument?
7. What is stratum granulosum consists of?
8. Where is the a thin, transitional zone of flat eosinophilic?
9. What keratin proteins provide?
10. What cells produce the pigment melanin?
Make the sentences of your own using the new words (10 sentences).
Find the definite and indefinite articles in the text.
Find one word, which is a little bit different in meaning from others (найдите одно слово, которое немного отличается от других по смыслу):
1) a) rain; b) epidermis; c) dermis;
2) a) weight; b) person; c) poster;
3) a) palm; b) foot; c) shoes;
4) a) brush; b) pigment; c) skin;
5) a) lash; b) wound; c) injury.