The heart is a muscular organ, composed primarily of cardiac muscle tissue, which contracts rhythmically to pump blood throughout the body. Structure of the heart wall: the walls of the heart are constructed in layers that are similar to those of the major blood vessels.
Endocardium is the innermost layer of the heart and is lined with endothelium. Veins, nerves, and components of the impulse conducting system are present in the subendocardial connective tissue layer.
Myocardium is composed of branching, anastomotic cardiac myocytes attached to one another by intercalated disks. Most of these cells are involved in the pumping function of the heart; others are specialized for the control of rhythmicity (impulse conducting system) or secretion (myocardial endocrine cells).
Epicardium is a serous membrane that forms the visceral lining of the pericardium. Its external mesothelium is supported by a loose connective tissue subepicardial layer.
Cardiac skeleton is composed mainly of dense connective tissue and consists of the annuli fibrosi, the trigonum fibrosum, and the septum membranaceum.
Cardiac valves are composed of dense fibrous tissue covered by endothelium. Unidirectional flow is maintained from the.Right atrium to the right ventricle (tricuspid valve).
Right ventricle to the pulmonary artery (pulmonic semilunar valve). Left atrium to the left ventricle (mitral/bicuspid valve).
Left ventricle to the aorta (aortic semilunar valve).
Tricuspid and mitral valves are attached to papillary muscles by cords of fibrous connective tissue (chordae tendineae) and prevent reflux of blood into the atria during ventricular con traction (systole). Semilunar valves (aortic and pulmonic) prevent reflux of blood back into the ventricles during ventricular relaxation (diastole).
Impulse conducting system of the heart consists of specialized cardiac myocytes that are characterized by automaticity and rhythmicity (i. e., they are independent of nervous stimulation and possess the ability to initiate heart beats). These specialized cells are located in the si-noatrial (SA) node (pacemaker), intern-odal tracts, atrioventricular (AV) node, AV bundle (of His), left and right bundle branches, and numerous smaller branches to the left and right ventricular walls. Impulse conduct ing myocytes are in electrical contact with each other and with normal contractile myocytes via communicating (gap) junctions. Specialized wide-diameter impulse conducting cells (Purkinje myocy-tes), with greatly reduced myofilament components, are well-adapted to increase conduction velocity. They rapidly deliver the wave of depolarization to ventricular myocytes.
heart – сердце
muscular – мышечный
cardiac – сердечный
which – который
contract – контракт
rhythmically – ритмично
to pump – качать
endocardium – эндокардиум
innermost – самый внутренний
components – компоненты
conducting system – проведение системы
to present – представлять
subendocardial – внутрисердечный
impulse – импульс
fibrosi – фиброзные кольца
Запомните следующие застывшие словосочетания.
What’s the use?
At the cinema
At the theatre
At the shop
At the market
To the cinema
To the theatre
To the shop
To the market
To go for a walk
Вставьте артикль, где необходимо.
1. Once there lived… man who was very fond of fold.
2. He used to say: «While I have my gold, I am… happiest man in… world».
3. And so all his life saved… money.
4. One day he was traveling in… desert of… North Africa.
5. He lost his way.. He had no… food or… water.
6. He was almost dying of… hunger.
7.. heat was terrible.
8. There were only… stones and… sand around.
9. What is. use of gold?
10. Let’s go to… shop. I must buy… bread and milk.
11. I was at… cinema yesterday.
12. What. film did you see?
13. Oh, I saw… very good film.
14. Ithink it is… best film of… year.
15. Do you oft go to… theatre?
16. No, I don’t. I like to go to. theatre, but I. very busy.
17. I work from… morning till… night.
18. I even have no… time to play piano.
19… lot of… tourists from… different countries come to… Paris.
Answer the questions.
1. What is the muscular organ?
2. What is heart primarily composed of?
3. What is the structure of the heart wall?
4. What is endocardium?
5. With what is endocardium lined?
6. What are present in the subendocardial connective tissue layer?
7. What is myocardium composed?
8. What is cardiac skeleton composed of?
9. What are cardiac valves composed of?
10. What do rapidly deliver the wave of depolarization to ventricular myocytes?
Make the sentences of your own using the new words (10 sentences).
Find the definite and indefinite articles in the text.